Friday, October 11, 2013

Red Dragon- Bruce Lee From All Angles

Bruce Jun Fan Lee was born between 6 p.m and 8 p.m on November 27, 1940 at Jackson Street Hospital in San Francisco's Chinatown. His birth year, the Dragon, almost foretold what type of person Bruce would become. He faced many obstacles throughout his life, from overcoming discrimination of his ethnicity to revolutionizing martial arts.  Bruce may be identified as an actor who had many successful takes, however,  he is regarded as one of the best martial artists that ever lived by the people that were close to him as well as the many fans who idolize him. Although his demise was uncalled for, the contributions as well as the sacrifices he made still have an a lasting impact in this world even to this day. Here is the biography of a once fluid man, crammed and distorted by the classical mess(the inscription engraved on his tombstone.

Bruce was the fourth child that Lee Hoi Chun and Grace Ho bore. Bruce had two older sisters, Phobe and Anges, an older brother,  Peter, as well as a younger brother, Robert. Lee Hoi Chun's profession was acting. Bruce's father would star in comedic productions in the Chinese opera and films. When Bruce was born, Mr. and Mrs. Lee were on tour with the Chinese opera company in the United States. This visit would become rather inevitable for Bruce's future, who would return back to America 18 years later to reclaim his American citizenship. 

Bruce's parents gave their son the name of "Jun Fan." Since  it is customary In Chinese culture to put the surname first, Bruce's full name was written as Lee Jun Fan. The meaning behind Bruce's name would actually become Bruce's defining feature, in terms of personality. Jun itself, means "to arouse to the active stare" or "to make prosperous." Back in the day, it was a common name among Chinese boys, since China endured oppression from both the West and the East. They're parents wanted the "sleeping lion of the East" to arise, so it could stand up against all forms of aggression. Fan refers to San Francisco, but represents " fence of a garden" or "bordering subordinate countries of a big country." During the period of the Ching Dynasty(1644-1911), many Chinese immigrated to the United States, populating the Western part, such as Hawaii and San Francisco to work as laborers. The influx of foreign people in the the United States in that time inferred that the U.S. was the FAN of Ching Empire. 
Bruce’s parents wanted Bruce to have his name stand out and startle the foreign countries, which he obviously succeeded in doing.

 His English name, Bruce, was given to the baby boy by a nurse working at the Jackson Street Hospital. Although he was never accustomed to this name until he entered secondary school and began his study of the English language. One of his childhood stories was that on the first day of English class, the students were asked to write down their English names. Bruce, not familiar with his name, resorted into copying the name of the student next to him. His family rarely used the name Bruce, especially during the period of his adolescence when his given nickname in the family was “SAI FON,” which literally meant Little Peacock. This is a girl’s nickname, but when applied to Bruce, it was truly a blessing. The first-born child of Mr. and Mrs. Lee did not survive infancy. Their belief was that if the gods did not favor the birth of a male child, the baby( Bruce) might be taken away. Therefore, the name Little Peacock, was used as a ploy to deceive the gods into thinking that Bruce was a girl. It was a term that was treated with great importance and affection among  the members of the family circle.

 At the age of three months, Lee Hoi Chuen, his wife Grace and baby Bruce returned to Hong Kong where Bruce would be raised until the age of 18. The long ocean voyage and the change in climates were possible factors in why Bruce was not a strong child in his very early years. His condition would later change when he took up the study of Gung Fu at the age of 13.

 The Japanese occupation was Bruce’s first fresh memory, but Hong Kong had been under the British Crown since the late 1800’s. England returned to power once the war ended. It is not difficult to see why young Bruce would have rebellious attitude toward foreign occupation of his homeland. In his teenage years, Bruce was exposed to the common practice of unfriendly taunting by English school boys who felt superior over the Chinese. It is not surprising that Bruce and his friends would get into altercations to protect their nation's dignity. This atmosphere motivated Bruce to immerse himself in martial arts. At the age of 13, Bruce was introduced to Master Yip Man, a renown teacher of the Wing Chun style of gung fu. Although Bruce's father was a martial artist, Bruce felt his father's style of Tai Chi Quan was useless in self-defense. For five years, Bruce centered his  utmost efforts in practicing Wing Chun and proceeded to refine his skills. He had great regard for Yip Man as his master teacher/sage and frequently visited with him in later years for advice or wisdom. Yip Man, himself, thought highly of Bruce and personally trained him, when Bruce's true ethnicity was under question, apparently Bruce was half Caucasian in blood from his mother. To be taught by Yip Man was an honor, since Yip did not teach frequently , and often assigned his qualified pupils to teach. When the students of Yip Man's school heard of Bruce's true race, all they felt for Bruce was pure animosity. Having Caucasian blood was just as bad as being Caucasian itself , since the racial tensions between the British and China have bad been going on since the 19th Century. Many Chinese that lived during the British Occupation of one hundred years thought that  Caucasians, who were built tall and firm and had access to technology should not deserve knowledge in the unarmed fighting arts, let alone embrace their culture to which they have corrupted. 

 In high school, Bruce, now no longer a scrawny child, began to condition his body. One of his most notable accomplishments was winning an interschool Boxing Championship against an English student in which the Marquis of Queensbury rules were enforced, such as no kicking was allowed. 

 It was no surprise that Bruce was also a terrific dancer, since his display of footwork in movies was graceful to it's fullest extent. As the matter of fact, in 1958 he won the Hong Kong Cha Cha Championship. He studied dancing as hard as he practiced gung fu, keeping a notebook in which it contained 108 different cha cha steps. It is evident to see that Bruce possessed the traits of self-discipline and a strong mind set, which would later benefit him, even though at this point of Bruce's time, he was not among the best of academic students in the class.

 Aside from his studies in gung fu and dancing, Bruce had another side interest during his school years. He worked as a child actor under the tutelage of his father who must have known from an early age that Bruce had a skill for showmanship. Bruce’s very first role was a baby 
in arms as he was carried onto the stage. By the time he was 18, he had participated in 20 films. In those days movie making was not particularly glamorous or  a good paying job in Hong Kong, but Bruce loved acting never the less. 

 At the age of 18, Bruce was looking towards the future as were his parents who were upset that Bruce had not made any more progress academically. Although Bruce had not formally graduated from high school and had other interests, his family decided that it was time for him to return to the land of his birth to start anew. During April of 1959, with only a $100 in his pocket, Bruce boarded a steamship in the American Presidents Line and began his voyage to San Francisco. Arriving in San Francisco, Bruce was equipped with the knowledge that his dancing abilities might earn him some money, so his first job was becoming a dance instructor.

 Bruce did not stay long in San Francisco, instead he traveled to Seattle where a family friend, Ruby Chow, owned a restaurant and had promised Bruce a job of a lowly bus boy and a place to live, which was located above the restaurant. By now Bruce put acting and dancing passions on a hiatus  and was determined on completing his education. He enrolled at Edison Technical School where he obtained the equivalent if a high school diploma and then enrolled at the University of Washington. Typical of his personality traits, he attacked learning colloquial English as he had his martial arts training. Not compliant in  speaking like a foreigner, he taught himself the peculiarities of speech in the English language. Bruce’s written English skills surpassed his verbal skill at first because he had been well tutored in the King’s proper English prose in Hong Kong.  When his wife-to-be met him at the University of Washington, he edited her English papers for correct grammar and syntax with ease.

 At the university, Bruce majored in philosophy. His passion for gung fu inspired a desire to delve into the philosophical underpinnings of the arts. Many of his written essays during those years would relate philosophical principles to certain martial arts techniques.

During the period of three years that Bruce studied at the university, he supported himself by teaching gung fu,  stuffing newspapers or various other odd jobs. He and a few of his new friends would meet in public places or places with space and experiment with gung fu techniques. In the late ‘50’s and early ‘60’s, “gung fu” was unheard of; in fact, the only physical martial art that might be listed in the yellow pages was Judo.  The small group of friends was astonished by this art called gung fu. One of the first students in this group was Jesse Glover who continues to teach some of Bruce’s early techniques up to this day. It was also during this period that Bruce and Taky Kimura became friends. Not only would Taky become Bruce’s gung fu student and his first Assistant Instructor, but the friendship forged between the two men was filled with compassion and strength for each other. Taky Kimura has continued to be Bruce’s faithful supporter, devoting his time into maintain  his art and philosophy for the next thirty years after Bruce's demise.

Bruce's small circle of friends  encouraged him to open a real school of gung fu and charge a small fee for teaching in order to support himself while attending school. Renting a small basement room with a half door entry from 8th Street in Seattle’s Chinatown, Bruce decided to call his school the Jun Fan Gung Fu Institute.  By 1963, having established a dedicated group of students and  giving numerous demonstrations at the university, Bruce thought he might attract more students by opening a larger school at 4750 University Way where he also lived in a small room in the back of the kwoon, term for martial arts school in Cantonese.

 One of his students in 1963 was a freshman at the University of Washington, Linda Emery. Linda knew who Bruce was from his guest lectures in Chinese philosophy at Garfield High School. In the summer after graduating, at the urging of her friend  Sue Ann Kay, Linda started taking gung fu lessons under Bruce's guidance. It was not long before Bruce and Linda noticed that they had some sort of chemistry between one another. Bruce and Linda  married in 1964. By this time, Bruce had decided to make a career out of teaching gung fu. His plan involved opening a chain of schools around the country and train assistant instructors to teach in his absence. Entrusting his Seattle school in the hands of Taky Kimura, Bruce and Linda left for Oakland where Bruce opened his second JKD school with James Lee. The two men had formed a friendship over the years with each traveling frequently between Seattle and Oakland. James had many years of experience in Gung Fu, but when he saw Bruce’s style he was so impressed by it's practicality and effectiveness that he wanted to co-found the second school with Bruce. Thus the second branch of the Jun Fan Gung Fu Institute was established. 

 Having now been in the United States for five years, Bruce had left behind any thought of acting as a career, and devoted himself completely to his choice of martial arts as a profession. Up to this time Bruce’s gung fu consisted mostly of wing chun techniques and theory he had learned from Yip Man. Gradually though, because of his burgeoning interest in the philosophy of martial arts and his desire for self improvement, he was expanding his repertoire. A particular incident accelerated his process of self-exploration. In 1964 Bruce was challenged by a mysterious Gung Fu council from San Francisco who objected to his idea of teaching non-Chinese students. Bruce accepted the challenge and the men arrived at the kwoon in Oakland on the scheduled day. The terms were that if Bruce were defeated he would stop teaching the non Chinese. If Bruce won ,however, the council would leave him alone.   It was a short fight with the Northern Shaolin gung fu practioner, Wong Jack Man,  giving up when Bruce had him pinned to the floor after about three minutes. The significance of this fight was that Bruce was very disappointed in his own performance. Even though he had won, he was frustrated and demotivated about his inability to dispatch Wong in under three minutes, which seemed too long for a fight. This event marked a turning point for Bruce in his exploration of martial arts and the enhancement of his physical regimen.  Jeet Kun Do would start to evolve.

 Just as Bruce was laying out his plans to expand his martial arts schools, fate stepped in to move his life in another direction. In the preceding years Bruce  was acquainted with Ed Parker, widely regarded as the father of American Kenpo. In August of 1964, Ed invited Bruce to Long Beach, California to give a demonstration on JKD at Ed's First International Karate Tournament.

During this time, Bruce began to sample other disciplines in martial arts to full fill his promise to be well rounded and aqueous. He exchanged  techniques with Jhoon Goo Rhee, a 10th degree Black Belt in Tae Kwon Do, which emphasis on kicks. Wing Chun, on the other hand, has limited kicks.  Kicks known that are used in Wing Chun are the front kick and the side kick. including it's varients. Here is a link that contains an interview with Jhoon  himself: .  
Aside from the striking arts, Bruce exposed his mind to grappling and wrestling under the guidance of Gene Lebell and Jesse Glover, a Judo practioner and one of Lee's students. "Judo" Gene Lebell was a fellow stunt man who often acted as a henchmen in the Green Hornet Series. Gene was also an professional wrestler, a mixed martial artist, and a Judoka. Gene's cridentials were holding a 10th degree Red Belt in Judo and a 9th degree Black Belt In Japanese Jiu Jitsu. He taught Bruce  how to apply the arm bar(a submission move), which was modified by Bruce for use during a fight scene at the beginning of the film, Enter the Dragon

Bruce also learned how to wield several weapons. Some in which he would incorporate into his works. Dan Inosanto, one of Bruce's former students, actually introduced the nunchaku to Bruce. At first, Bruce thought the farming tool was useless. But then he soon realized that it's effectiveness and should be featured as Kato's main weapon/gadget on  the Green Hornet. Bruce was also taught the use of Escrima sticks. But Bruce did have some experience with  long pole from Wing Chun and was taught the art of fencing from his brother, Robert. 

To further note, he was very enthusiastic about American boxing and incorporated many of the boxing techniques as a part of his arsenal and into JKD itself. 

 One of the members of the audience that was present during the demonstration  was Jay Sebring, a well-known hair stylist in Hollywood.  The coming week, Jay was styling the hair of William Dozier, an established producer. Mr. Dozier mentioned to Jay that he was searching for an actor to play the part of Charlie Chan’s son in a spin-off of the original series to be titled, “Number One Son.” Jay brought up the account to the producer about having encountered a spectacular young Chinese man giving a gung fu demonstration just a few nights prior. Mr. Dozier obtained a copy of the film that was recorded at Ed Parker’s tournament. The next week he called Bruce at home in Oakland and invited him to come to Los Angeles for a screen test for the main role in the "Number One Son."

Bruce’s screen test was impressive, but in the meantime plans for “Number One Son” had been abandoned. Even though Mr. Dozier was busy in the production of the “Batman” TV series, but still he wanted to hang onto Bruce. The plan was that if Batman was successful for more than one season, then Dozier wanted to coin on the popularity of another comic book character, “The Green Hornet” with Bruce portraying Kato. To keep Bruce from signing with someone else, Mr. Dozier paid him an additional $1,800  for one year.

Bruce’s personal life changed as well. His  son, Brandon Bruce Lee, was born February 1, 1965. One week later Bruce’s father, Lee Hoi Chuen, died in Hong Kong. Given these events and the  the extra  money, Bruce decided it was time to make a trip to Hong Kong to visit his mother and introduce the family to both Linda and Brandon. They resided in the family flat on Nathan Road for four months. While there, Bruce was able to reappear in training sessions with Master Yip Man once again and the students of the Wing Chun school.

 Upon leaving Hong Kong, Bruce and his family traveled to Seattle where they stayed with Linda’s family for another four months.  After Seattle, the family moved back in to James Lee’s house in Oakland for several months before making the move to Los Angeles. In Los Angeles, he was introduced to Dan Inosanto whom he had known through Ed Parker. It was not long before Bruce appointed Dan as his assistant instructor for the new installment to the chain of Bruce's Gung Fu schools.

 During this entire year of traveling and working closely with his best gung fu colleagues, Bruce was going through a period of intense self-exploration. He was in a bit of predicament during this time, having to choose whether to make acting his career or continue to teach Gung Fu.  His decision was to focus on acting and see if he could make acting more of a productive job. He had often said that his passion was the pursuit of the martial arts, but making films was his career field. 

 The main reason that Bruce turned his attention to acting was that he had lost interest in spreading his way of martial arts in a wide scale manner. In his opinion, Jeet Kun Do could be taught but not standardized. He had begun realize that as his schools became more numerous, he would lose control of the quality of the teaching. Bruce loved to teach gung fu, and he loved his students., but his love for his martial arts was not carrear choice that Bruce had in mind.

 In 1966, production started on “The Green Hornet.” The filming only lasted for six months, the series for one season, and that was the end of it. Bruce’s overall pay was $313 a week, which seemed like a large sum of cash at the time.

 The years between 1967 and 1971 were very harsh for the Lee family. Bruce worked hard at furthering his acting career and did get some roles in a few TV series and films. But acting alone was not enough for Bruce to make money.To support the family, Bruce resorted back to his old ways by teaching private lessons in Jeet Kune Do, often to people in the entertainment industry. Some of his clients included Steve McQueen, James Coburn, Stirling Silliphant, Sy Weintraub, Ted Ashley, Joe Hyams, James Garner, Chuck Norris, Bob Wall, and many others.

 Another addition to the Lee family was the arrival of a daughter, Shannon Emery Lee, on April 19, 1969.

During this time Bruce continued the process he had started in Oakland in 1964, the evolution of his way of martial arts, which he referred to as Jeet Kune Do, “The Way of The Intercepting Fist.” He read and wrote extensively his thoughts about physical combat, the psychology of fighting, the philosophical origins of martial arts, and about how martial arts provided motivation, self-realization and freedom of the individual. According to a quote from Bruce, "Man, the living creature, the creating individual, is always more important than any established style or system." 

 Bruce was devoted to physical culture and trained devotedly. In addition to actual sparring with his students, he believed in physical arduous aerobic workouts and weight training. His abdominal and forearm workouts were particularly intense. There was rarely a time when Bruce was doing nothing—in fact, he was often seen reading a book, doing forearm curls and watching a boxing film at the same time. He also paid strict attention to his diet and took supplemental vitamins and Chinese herbs at times.    

On a day in 1970, without warming up, which was something that he always did, Bruce picked up a 125-pound barbell and did a “good morning” stretch. That weight-lifting exercise  consists of resting the barbell on one’s shoulders and bending straight over at the waist. After much pain and many physical check-ups, it was determined that he had sustained an injury to the fourth sacral nerve. He was ordered to complete bed rest and was told that he would probably never do gung fu again. For the next six months, Bruce stayed in bed. It was an extremely frustrating, depressing and painful time for Bruce. But it was also during this time that he had the time to write; several of the written notes would be combined to form a book called, the Tao of Jeet Kun Do, which basically explained the principles and concepts of his fighting method and views on martial arts. After several months, Bruce adopted his own recovery program and began walking, struggling at first, and gradually built up his strength. He was now determined that he would return to practice  Gung Fu again.

 Bruce was always creating new stories in his imagination. One of the projects he had been working on was the idea of a television series set in the Old West, featuring an Asian monk who roamed the countryside solving issues. He proposed the idea to Warner Bros. and it was enthusiastically well received. The producers discussed at great length to Bruce about the proposed series always with the intent that Bruce would play the role of the Eastern wise man. In the end, the role was not offered to Bruce; instead it went to David Carradine. The title series of the series was changed to “Kung Fu.” The studio supported their decision by coming up with the reason that American audiences would feel puzzled if the main protagonist was an Chinese guy. Devastated by their deciison to cut him off of the project , Bruce looked else where to find fame and fortune.

 Along with two of his students, Stirling Silliphant, the famed writer, and actor, James Coburn, Bruce collaborated on a script for which he wrote the original story line. The three of them met weekly to refine the script. It was to be called “The Silent Flute.” Again, Warner Bros. showed interest and sent the three men off to India to search for locations to film. Unfortunately the right locations could not be found. Consequently, the studio backed off, and the project was scrapped. Thwarted again in his effort to find a solid role in the movie industry, Bruce had a different thing in mind.

 In 1970, when Bruce recovered from his back injury, he took a trip to Hong Kong with his son Brandon, at the age five. He was surprised when he was greeted as “Kato,” as the local boy who had been on American TV. He was asked to appear on TV talk shows. He was not aware that Hong Kong film producers were viewing him with interest. In 1971, about the time that “The Silent Flute” failed to to happen, Hong Kong producer Raymond Chow gave Bruce his big break by
 contacting Bruce to in the effort in getting Bruce to do two films for Golden Harvest. With limited options, Bruce returned to his homeland in hopes that he could be finally recognized.

In the summer of 1971, Bruce departed from Los Angeles to fly across the globe  to Hong Kong, then to Thailand to shoot his first film of the contract, “The Big Boss,” later renamed “Fists of Fury.” Between Hong Kong and Thailand, a rival producer of Raymond Chow ,Run Run Shaw, attempted to take Bruce away from Golden Harvest. But Bruce had signed a two-film contract so he stayed with Raymond Chow. Although the working conditions were difficult, and the production quality was below the standards to what Bruce expect from his childhood productions, “The Big Boss” was a huge success. The premier took place at midnight, as was that a Hong Kong custom. The entire cast and production team were very nervous, but no more  than Bruce. At the end of the film, the entire audience was silent for a brief moment, then the movie viewers exploded in cheers and hailed their new idol who was viewing the movie  from the back of the theater.

 In September of 1971, filming began for the second film called the “Fist of Fury,” also called “Chinese Connection.” It surpassed the success of the first film, breaking all-time box office records. Now that Bruce had completed his contract with Golden Harvest, and had become an influential asset of the film company, which gave him more control on the quality of his films. For the third film, he formed a partnership with Raymond Chow, called Concord Productions. Not only did Bruce write  the script for “The Way of the Dragon,”  he directed and produced it as well, in which Chuck Norris starred in as one of Bruce's opponents. "The Way of the Dragon" basically set the course for Chuck's movie career. Once again, the film broke records, and now Hollywood was beginning to listen.

 In the fall of 1972, Bruce began filming “The Game of Death,” a story he once again visualized. The filming was interrupted by the consummation of a deal with Warner Bros. to develop the first ever Chinese-American co-production. The deal was made smoothly due to the fact that Bruce knew Warner Bros. president, Ted Ashley, personally as well as Bruce’s successes in Hong Kong. It was an climatic and profound moment in Hong Kong’s film industry. “The Game of Death” was put on hold  to allow the filming of “Enter the Dragon.”  To Bruce, it was  the opportunity of a lifetime.

 Filming “Enter the Dragon” was not an easy feat. The American cast and crew and their Chinese counterparts experienced language barriers  and production difficulties. It was a stressful time for Bruce too as he wanted the film to be especially well versed in both action as well as incorporating his own philosophical view on martial arts. He wanted to apply his knowledge to which so relentlessly tried to express. Essentially: he wanted a film that everyone could accept.

 On July 20, 1973, Bruce suffered from a minor headache. He was offered a prescription painkiller called Equagesic. After taking the pill, he went to rest, lapsing into a coma. He was rushed to the operating table but was unable to be revived by the medical personal at the Hong Kong Baptist Hospital. An extensive autopsy was performed to determine the cause of his death, which was not immediately known. A nine-day coroner’s inquest was held with a testimony given by renowned pathologists flown in from around the world. The conclusion was made that Bruce had a hypersensitive reaction to an ingredient in the pain medication that caused a swelling of the fluid on the brain, resulting in a coma and death.

 “Enter the Dragon”  premiered at Hollywood’s Chinese theater in August of 1973, six days after Lee's death. According to IMBd, a movie website, Enter the Dragon grossed $25,000,00 in the United States, $3,307,526 in Hong Kong, and $90,000,00 world wide, while the budget was only a mere estimate of $850,000. 
Bruce left behind a wife, a son, and a daughter. Brandon followed his father's footsteps and starred in several action flicks until  his untimely death in an accident on set while filming the movie, the Crow

The world had lost a movie star who rose to fame in a matter of thirty two years. His contributions in martial arts would influence the distribution  of martial arts across the United States and soon the world, who were hyped up from watching Bruce's last hit, Enter the Dragon. Bruce had an explosive personality, a trait you don't find in your daily lives. He represented people of the third world against all oppression. He united people from all walks of life and it didn't matter what race you were. You were a fan of Bruce Lee. Even though Brandon suffered the same fate as his father, the Lee family still continues to express Bruce's legacy through Shannon Lee, Bruce's daughter. Instead of remembering his death, I would rather remember how he lived his life.

Photo Gallery: 

Bruce Lee as an infant.

Bruce Lee training in Wing Chun chi sao drills with Yip Man, his master, during his younger years. 

Photo of Williams( the Green Hornet) and Kato( Bruce Lee) delivering a side kick.

     Bruce Lee showcasing his strength at the Long Beach International Karate Championships by preforming his two-finger push ups. 

Legendary fight between two martial arts legends: Bruce Lee(left) and Chuck Norris(right)
* Film: The Way of the Dragon, 1972

A farming tool that was made popular by Bruce as a bone- crushing weapon: the Nunchaku

One of the most iconic images of Bruce Lee .

Bruce Lee and Jhoon Rhee exchanging round house kicks against each other in  an exhibition.

A famous quote from Bruce Lee that actually applied to his life.

Bruce Lee's signature one inch punch which demonstrated how it was possible for an individual to generate so much force within an inches reach apart from the body.  The punch is derived from Wing Chun. This technique kind of contradicts traditional martial arts such as Karate. In Karate, you generate power in punches from the hip. Bruce supposedly stated that the surge power he generated was not from muscle conditioning but constant meditation.

This link does a better explanation for the one inch punch:

Stan Lee's Super Humans's Episode on the One Inch Punch:

Description based off of :
Bruce Lee used this symbol as the representation of his art of Jeet Kune Do, 
the emblem of his school, and his personal philosophy. Bruce Lee himself 
describes it best:  “In the yin yang symbol, there is a white spot on the black 
half, and a black spot on the white half. In JKD, Yang (firmness) should be 
concealed in Yin (gentleness) as Yin is concealed within Yang. Thus, a JKD 
man should be soft, yet not yielding; firm, yet not hard. The curved arrows 
surrounding the Yin Yang symbol represent not only the harmonious interplay 
of Yin Yang but also the interchangeability of opposites.”

The Chinese characters that Bruce Lee wrote around the Yin Yang symbol 
and arrows are a phrase he authored and used to represent his philosophy, 
which translated read:  “ Using no way as way, Having no limitation as 

Links and Reference Sites on Bruce Lee:
* Link 1( I Am Bruce Lee- A documentary):
* Link 2( Top Ten Bruce Lee Moments):  /  Alternate Link:
Link 3:

Book(In PDF Format): Tao of Jeet Kun Do

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